Energy Work Group: Heat for the Municipality Baar
Germans use more than 50 % of all energy as heat; the remainder consists of electricity and fuel. Private households use as much as 90 % of their energy consumption to heat their homes and water. This makes heat the most important form of energy in Germany; the impact of heat consumption on environmental protection and the climate can hardly be overestimated.
In August of 2014 as part of the BMBF project [BMBF – German Federal Ministry for Education and Research] 'Lokale Passung' (local fit), researchers conducted a survey about the energy turnaround among the citizens of the German municipality of Baar. The questions addressed the future power supply in general and local solutions in particular (especially with reference to the call for a wind park). The interviewer also included comprehensive questions about the supply of heat.
This anonymised survey revealed that the citizens of this community use mostly oil, wood, and gas to produce heat. By comparison, solar power and heat pumps play a minor role. The analyses of the survey results pertaining to the buildings (age and maintenance of the houses) and the heating systems (age and used fuel) already showed great potential for communal heat supply solutions.
Since January 2015, the local 'Energy Work Group' had thoroughly discussed the future heat supply for the buildings. Skilful support for the work group came from LMU experts [LMU – Ludwig Maximilian University Munich] and the bifa. The support was part of the framework project 'Local Fit'. In three sessions over six months, the participants found answers to the following questions: How can the municipality Baar be supplied with heat in the future? What kind of solutions will work in the municipality? What potential is there for on-site heating? What supply solutions are technically feasible? What solutions make ecological sense and are financially attractive?
Several approaches were subject to scrutiny in the search for future heat and energy sources. Aside from known solutions such as biomass boilers or block-type thermal power stations for the simultaneous generation of electricity and heat, citizens also considered the use of waste heat from the local brewery.
Based on these preparations, bifa performed comprehensive calculations to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of various supply options for West and East Baar and in a planned new residential area. The participants then jointly evaluated the results. In a public event on the 16th of November 2015, the Energy Work Group presented the central results to about 60 interested citizens of Baar. Mayor Norbert Beutmüller from the village of Buttenwiesen supported the event by reporting his experience with local heat supplies in his village.
In a survey, we will now ask members of households in the western and eastern regions for their opinion on community heating, whether they are interested in being connected to community heating and their actual heat use. After evaluation of all survey results and combining the new results with already existing information, the municipal council of Baar will have the necessary data to decide on the local heating issue.